3HO


Official website: www.3ho.org

Wikipedia says:

3HO (Healthy, Happy, Holy Organization) is an American cult that started about 1970. It was founded in the West by Harbhajan Singh Khalsa, also called "Yogi Bhajan".[1][2][3][4][5]

Men and women often wear white turbans. The movement is known for including some practices found in certain traditions of Hinduism,[6] such as vegetarianism, meditation and Yoga, particularly Kundalini yoga.[4][5] The Sikhs, including the Sikh leadership, in Amritsar, does not consider 3HO as Sikhs.[2][5] 3HO consider the teachings of Yogi Bhajan as authoritative as the Guru Granth Sahib, which Sikhs consider as heresy. 3HO also believes openness to Yoga and spiritual ideas as a source of strength.[6][7]

Reception

In 1977, journalist James Wilde wrote an article published in Time magazine describing the devotion of supporters and hostility of opponents of 3HO and Yogi Bhajan, its founder.[8]

3HO Sikhs, states Nicola Mooney, have combined "ethic and capitalism" to their spiritual pursuits, with the community creating Yogi Tea and Akal Security brands with a worldwide presence.[9]

References

  1. ^ Eleanor Nesbitt (2016). Sikhism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 101–102. ISBN 978-0-19-106277-3..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ a b Sects in Sikhism, Encyclopedia Britannica
  3. ^ Pashaura Singh; Louis E. Fenech (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 8, 358, 515–522. ISBN 978-0-19-100411-7.
  4. ^ a b Kristen Haar; Sewa Singh Kalsi (2009). Sikhism. Infobase Publishing. pp. 9–14. ISBN 978-1-4381-0647-2.
  5. ^ a b c Opinderjit Kaur Takhar (2016). Sikh Identity: An Exploration of Groups Among Sikhs. Taylor & Francis. pp. 161–168. ISBN 978-1-351-90010-2.
  6. ^ a b Kamala Elizabeth Nayar (2004). The Sikh Diaspora in Vancouver: Three Generations Amid Tradition, Modernity, and Multiculturalism. University of Toronto Press. pp. 127–128. ISBN 978-0-8020-8631-0.
  7. ^ Jakobsh, Doris (2008). "3HO/Sikh Dharma of the Western Hemisphere: The Forgotten New Religious Movement?". Religion Compass. Wiley-Blackwell. 2 (3): 385–408. doi:10.1111/j.1749-8171.2008.00068.x.
  8. ^ "Religion: Yogi Bhajan's Synthetic Sikhism". Time. 5 September 1977.
  9. ^ Mooney, Nicola (2012). "READING WEBER AMONG THE SIKHS: ASCETICISM AND CAPITALISM IN THE 3HO/SIKH DHARMA". Sikh Formations. Taylor & Francis. 8 (3): 417–436. doi:10.1080/17448727.2012.745305.

Further reading

External links

source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3HO