3HO


Official website: www.3ho.org

Wikipedia says:

3HO (Healthy, Happy, Holy Organization) is a sect of Sikhism that started about 1970. It was founded in the West by Harbhajan Singh Khalsa also called as "Yogi Bhajan".[1] It is also referred in the West as the Sikh Dharma movement or Khalsa Dharma movement, and 3HO is the official name of their educational branch.[2][3][4] Many Indian origin Sikhs refer to this movement as the Gora Sikhs (White Sikhs), while others question whether they are actually Sikhs – something resented by those who belong to it.[5]

3HO has a code of conduct called rahit quite similar to the orthodox Khalsa, including the Five Ks. The movement requires both men and women who join it to adopt Sikh names and Khalsa as their surname. Their central beliefs are found in the scripture Guru Granth Sahib. Men and women wear white turbans. The movement is known for including some practices found in certain traditions of Hinduism,[6] such as vegetarianism, meditation and Yoga, particularly the Kundalini Yoga.[4][5] The Sikh Dharma movement members consider themselves to be Sikhs, but the orthodox Khalsa organization headquartered in Amritsar does not consider them as Sikhs.[2][5] The 3HO Sikhs consider the teachings of Yogi Bhajan as authoritative as the Guru Granth Sahib, and believe openness to Yoga and spiritual ideas as a source of strength.[6][7]

Reception

The Time magazine wrote an article in 1977 describing the devotion by supporters and hostility by opponents for 3HO and Yogi Bhajan, its founder.[8]

The 3HO Sikhs, states Nicola Mooney, have combined "ethic and capitalism" to their spiritual pursuits, with the community creating Yogi Tea and Akal Security brands with a worldwide presence.[9]

References

  1. ^ Eleanor Nesbitt (2016). Sikhism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 101–102. ISBN 978-0-19-106277-3. 
  2. ^ a b Sects in Sikhism, Encyclopedia Britannica
  3. ^ Pashaura Singh; Louis E. Fenech (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 8, 358, 515–522. ISBN 978-0-19-100411-7. 
  4. ^ a b Kristen Haar; Sewa Singh Kalsi (2009). Sikhism. Infobase Publishing. pp. 9–14. ISBN 978-1-4381-0647-2. 
  5. ^ a b c Opinderjit Kaur Takhar (2016). Sikh Identity: An Exploration of Groups Among Sikhs. Taylor & Francis. pp. 161–168. ISBN 978-1-351-90010-2. 
  6. ^ a b Kamala Elizabeth Nayar (2004). The Sikh Diaspora in Vancouver: Three Generations Amid Tradition, Modernity, and Multiculturalism. University of Toronto Press. pp. 127–128. ISBN 978-0-8020-8631-0. 
  7. ^ Jakobsh, Doris (2008). "3HO/Sikh Dharma of the Western Hemisphere: The Forgotten New Religious Movement?". Religion Compass. Wiley-Blackwell. 2 (3): 385–408. doi:10.1111/j.1749-8171.2008.00068.x. 
  8. ^ "Religion: Yogi Bhajan's Synthetic Sikhism". Time. 5 September 1977. 
  9. ^ Mooney, Nicola (2012). "READING WEBER AMONG THE SIKHS: ASCETICISM AND CAPITALISM IN THE 3HO/SIKH DHARMA". Sikh Formations. Taylor & Francis. 8 (3): 417–436. doi:10.1080/17448727.2012.745305. 

Further reading

External links

source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3HO